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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

REPORT ON THE PROGRESS AND CONDITION OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1944

@eangae?l-

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1945

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 35 cents

Unitep States Nationa Museum, Unvrr DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,

Washington, D. C.,' October 14, 1944.

Srr: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the present condition of the United States National Museum and upon the work accomplished in its various departments during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944.

Very respectfully, ALEXANDER WETMORE, Director, U.S. National Museum.

THE SECRETARY, Smithsonian Institution.

pay

CONTENTS

Page

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REPORT ON THE PROGRESS AND CONDITION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1944

By ALEXANDER WETMORE

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Direcior of the United States National Museum

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR APPROPRIATIONS

Funps for the operation of the United States National Museum for the year ended June 30, 1944, were included in the appropriation ‘Salaries and Expenses, Smithsonian Institution,’ which, as an item in the Executive and Independent Offices Act for the fiscal year 1944, was approved on June 26,1943. All the Federal activities administered by the Smithsonian Institution, excluding the National Gallery of Art, were covered in one appropriation. That portion of the overtime pay due members of our staff under the War Overtime Pay Act of 1943, not covered by savings in the regular appropriation, was provided for in the first Deficiency Act, 1944 (Publ. Law 279, approved April 1, 1944). Moneys required for the Museum were allotted from the regular appropriation and the Deficiency Act, and are summarized as follows:

Preservation of collections:

necwian AO propria tioned) 22). CAN seks Cickty PrRR | $422, 765 Hirst Deficiency Act Zk Ao bi AUR aria ts 9, 860 Maintenance and operation: RerilaTs approprniaiiONas vas) Sat te CUR Ree Le yk ee 422, 489 irsh Dehiciency Act... to leee See ea i See 31, 935 ramus Andy bInGing sa! 6 neue oe see cs se Me 43, 000 Totaliavailable for the yearos 2.232204 cst ee 929, 999

In combining the appropriations of the Smithsonian Institution, the former appropriation ‘Preservation of Collections, Smithsonian Institution” became an allotment, and the name of the project was changed to ‘‘National Museum.”

By internal reorganization the project ‘““Maintenance and Opera- tion”’ was enlarged by adding to it the guard, labor, and char forces formerly included under ‘Preservation of Collections,’ as well as the guard force from the project ‘‘National Collection of Fine Arts” and laborers from the project ‘General Administration.” This change brought into one project the guard force of the Smithsonian

1

2 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

Institution and the mechanics, laborers, and char force responsible for the maintenance and operation of all the buildings of the Smith- sonian Institution, excluding the National Gallery of Art. The considerable increase in funds allotted for ‘‘“Maintenance and Opera- tion’”’ and the decrease in the allotment for the ‘““National Museum” (Preservation of Collections) as compared with the previous year are explained by this reorganization.

Payment for overtime service of the personnel of the Museum was made throughout the year.

The allotment for printing and binding was the same as for the preceding year. With the restrictions the Museum has placed on its publications during the war period, the sum is adequate except that binding of the valuable reference library is in arrears. The sum now available will be entirely inadequate when the usual program of publication is resumed. Science suffers when publication is restricted. The facts discovered from research on the national collections attain their full utility only when they become generally available to other workers.

The staff was at a low ebb owing to the fact that 1944 was the first full year under the reduced personnel ceiling placed on the Insti- tution. The National Museum lost 55 positions by the imposition of this ceiling, and the man-years of service by permanent personnel dropped from 373 in 1943 to 321 in 1944. Loss from this sharp decrease was felt in all activities of the Museum, from classification, care, arrangement, and study of the collections to maintenance, operation, and repair of the buildings. The ceiling on personnel cannot be blamed alone for this situation, for the acute manpower shortage made it most difficult to recruit personnel in all categories wherever there were vacancies in positions. The condition imposes a most pressing postwar problem on the Institution. While an acute shortage in personnel can be offset for short periods by increased effort on the part of the reduced staff, this cannot be expected to continue. The collections now housed in the National Museum are of such great value to the science, the culture, and the history of our country that their preservation must be adequate under all conditions. The arrearage in the work of the Museum, already considerable, has been increased unduly. Safety demands that it be reduced. To accomplish this, more personnel and more space must be provided.

The need for space has been stressed in previous reports. The situation becomes more acute yearly. Unless provision is made for the continuing growth of the collections, the Museum cannot dis- charge its responsibility to the Nation.

COLLECTIONS

In summing up the work of this fiscal year it has been interesting again to note the steady inflow of valuable specimens as additions to our great collections in spite of war conditions. These have come mainly as gifts from interested persons, since our usual program of field work has been laid aside except where it has related to some activity concerned with the war. Small sets of natural-history specimens began to arrive in increasing number from members of the armed forces stationed throughout the world, bringing many

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 3

useful and interesting things. The total number of specimens received is somewhat larger than that of last year.

New material arrived in 1,159 separate accessions, with a total of 239,640 specimens, distributed among the five departments as follows: Anthropology, 852; biology, 229,546; geology, 3,466; engineering and industries, 1,388; history, 4,388. The increase has come in the fields of biology and history, the others showing slight decreases.

For examination and report 724 lots of specimens were received, covering all the fields embraced in our laboratories, an increase of 43 over last year. Part of these were returned to the senders when the examination was concluded, some were consumed or otherwise de- stroyed during identification, and some were presented as additions to our permanent collection.

Gifts of duplicates to schools, museums, and other institutions numbered 2,382 specimens. Exchanges of duplicate materials with other collections amounted to 10,634 specimens, and 726 specimens were transferred to other governmental agencies. Loans for scien- tific study to investigators outside Washington totaled 21,787 speci- mens. The summary of the collections given below has been adjusted to reflect additions and eliminations from the various series.

AMTUNEOPOO Sy 402 Sees ONG ES ae 711, 917 UO eypumens RATA Pea p SCT RN PR ee SOTA | of as 13, 869, 472 GEOlO Cia ee ee elol a es ero mesh her hehe abe 2, 687, 129 meimeering and industries. 2 ae et 139, 420 TAN SEOMApames cath rays ek Uae a aa te Moe aa 529, 483

ARO Getl EIT EC AY 8s EG esa a 17, 937, 371

EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD WORK

Under the auspices of the Division of Cultural Cooperation of the Department of State, Ellsworth P. Killip, associate curator of plants, visited Colombia during April, May, and June, spending some time in Bogoté for work with Dr. Armando Dugand and his associates upon large collections of Colombian plants recently assembled at the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. From there he made brief field trips to Apulo and Pubenza, in the western part of the Department of Cundinamarca, and to Monserrate and Fusagasugé. Later he went to Popaydén to join the ornithologist Dr. F. C. Lehmann V in an excursion to the Lehmann hacienda at La Capilla and to Paéramo de Puracé. Mr. Killip’s last 5 weeks were spent with Dr. José Cuatre- casas, Director of the Comisién de Botanica, Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento, Cali, in examining the herbaria there and at the agricul- tural school, and in exploring the extensive mangrove swamps about Buenaventura Bay and on the delta of the San Juan River.

Philip Hershkovitz, holder of the Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholar- ship for 1941-43, returned to Washington in October after spending the better part of two years in Colombia, where he collected in the states of Atlantico, Magdalena, Bolivar, and Norte de Santander. The collection he amassed forms the largest single accession of mam- mals received by the Museum in the past 25 years.

In Colombia, also, M. A. Carriker, Jr., continued ornithological field work until October under the W. L. Abbott fund, his investiga- tions in northeastern Colombia extending south into Norte del Santander. In November he brought to the Museum the results of

4 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

his past two seasons’ work, one of the finest collections of birds that has been made in that area.

Dr. G. Arthur Cooper, curator of the division of invertebrate pale- ontology and paleobotany, in collaboration with Drs. Byron N. Cooper and R. 8S. Hdmundson, of the Virginia Geological Survey, made an investigation of the relationships of the limestones occurring on the flanks of Clinch Mountain in southwestern Virginia and northern Tennessee. Considerable information on these valuable deposits was obtained. The work also furthered studies of those brachiopods that have a significant relation to the classification of the Middle Ordovician strata of the eastern United States. The investi- gations were made under the Walcott fund of the Smithsonian Institution.

Under the cooperative program between the Division of Cultural Cooperation of the Department of State and the Smithsonian Insti- tution, Dr. Cooper continued study of the geological formations of northwestern Mexico with the assistance of Mexican geologists. He arrived in Mexico City on February 23, and after conferences with geologists in the Instituto Geolégico de México, continued on February 28 to the field, accompanied by his collaborator of the previous year, Ing. Alberto R. V. Arellano. After a week’s journey the party arrived in Caborca, Sonora, and there established headquarters for work in the desert. Investigation began in the hills northwest of the village and continued in the mountains to the southeast, south, and west, as well as in the vicinity of the village of Pitiquito. Eight days were spent at the mining camp of El Antimonio. On April 11 the party moved to the village of Altar, where sections were visited to the north, south, and east. Field work terminated on April 16. After about 2 weeks in Mexico City, partly devoted to conferences with Mexican geologists, Dr. Cooper returned to Washington, arriv- ing on May 11.

The additional studies outlined have revealed that the Cambrian section extends into the hills northwest of Caborca for about 15 miles farther than previously known and have perfected knowledge of the structure of the Cambrian sediments from Caborca west to the Arrojos Hills, a distance of about 15 miles. In addition to the informa- tion acquired on the Cambrian, an enormous sequence of pre-Cambrian rocks was established, running from Pitiquito for many miles to the southeast. The same sequence was determined in several of the ranges south of Caborca. Work at El Antimonio led to the rediscovery of a zone of fusuline fossils, which will be important in establishing the geologic age of the related beds. It also led to the acquisition of more and better fossils from sections not fully covered last year and helped to establish a satisfactory explanation of the structure of the Permian rocks in this complicated area. The work around Altar was of necessity superficial, but during the limited time available a long sequence of Lower Cretaceous rocks was identified, constituting an addition to the geological column for this part of Sonora. The field work was supported in part by a grant from the Walcott fund of Smithsonian Institution.

Dr. W. F. Foshag, curator of mineralogy and petrology, while occupied in work on strategic mineral sources in Mexico, has had opportunity to make observations of the Paricutin Volcano.

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 5

During a 2-day trip, C. W. Gilmore, curator of vertebrate paleon- tology, accompanied by A. C. Murray, visited Plumpoint, Calvert County, Md., to collect a partial skeleton of a sirenian found by William E. Salter. The specimen proved to be the most complete skeleton of this sea-cow yet found in the Maryland Miocene rocks, as it consisted of the skull, ramus, 22 vertebrae, 39 ribs, both scapulae, both humeri, and sternal and fragmentary parts, all representative of a skeleton more than 10 feet long.

THE MUSEUM IN WARTIME

The halls of the National Museum continued to be of great public interest during the year, the total attendance of 1,532,765 visitors being an increase of 177,496 over those of the previous fiscal year. Through an actual tabulation made during the first seven days of each month, it was ascertained that approximately 40 percent of all! visitors are men and women in uniform,

While the possibility of enemy attack on Washington became steadily less as the year progressed, measures for safeguarding our visitors, collections, and buildings continued in force. The Smith- sonian air-raid defense organization remained in operation throughout the year under the direction of the general defense coordinator, F. M. Setzler. Six practice blackout drills were held at night, and two practice air-raid drills were held during the daytime.

As a result of a recommendation by the Smithsonian War Com- mittee, a conference was held between officials of the Smithsonian Institution and the United Service Organizations, Inc., to organize a free guide service for personnel in uniform in the National Museum. In July 1943 a committee of U.S. O. groups within the city of Wash- ington indicated their willingness to enlist the aid of their hostesses as volunteers for this docent service. Under the direction of F. M. Setzler, head curator of the department of anthropology, a route was established within the Natural History Building and a script prepared and mimeographed describing the exhibitions in the galleries selected for the tour. Since all the volunteer hostesses were employed during the week, classes for instructing them were arranged on Sunday afternoons, from August 22 to October 17, 1943, and on October 24 the first U. S. O. guide service for men and women in uniform was inaugurated. The individual groups were organized by a receptionist in the rotunda near the south entrance of the building. The first tour left at 11 a. m., and other small groups continued at 15-minute intervals until 3:30 p. m. Each tour, covering the exhibitions illustrating the various phases of geology, anthropology, and biology, required approximately 45 minutes. In order to fill vacancies among the hostesses as the work progressed, a second class was instructed during February 1944. During the 35 Sundays from October 24, 1943, to June 25, 1944, a total of 5,325 military visitors were escorted through the building, an average of about 152 people for each Sunday. The tours were suspended in July 1944.

These free Sunday tours for visitors in uniform were much appreci- ated by those men and women who participated. Many interesting and worth-while reactions were obtained, as indicated by the questions asked and the interest expressed concerning the various exhibition halls. Credit for the success of this service is due to the efforts of

6 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

the U. S. O. hostesses, to the excellent cooperation of the U.S. O. headquarters, and to the chairman and head receptionist, Miss Margaret Bledsoe. All have assisted in diffusing knowledge through the medium of the exhibitions.

Throughout the year the collections removed from our buildings as a safeguard were inspected regularly, and careful guard was main- tained over them.

While progress in the prosecution of the war toward the close of the fiscal year modified some of the Museum’s contacts with the war agencies, we may feel definite pride in the many calls made on us for data and information as well as for the various individual services rendered. These have extended to practically all the laboratories and offices in our organization. Scores of requests came for informa- tion on various kinds of animals and plants, these being concerned sometimes with identifications and sometimes with other specific data.

In the division of mammals, Dr. Remington Kellogg, curator, served as chairman of the American delegation at the International Conference on the Regulation of Whaling held at London during January 1944. At the request of the National Research Council, Dr. Kellogg undertook the preparation of text, keys, distribution maps, and illustrations of monkeys known to be susceptible to in- fection by malarial parasites, to aid in malariological studies in man. Officers of special Army and Navy Units, the staff of the Surgeon General of the Army, Office of Strategic Services, and the Division of Preventive Medicine and Surgery of the Navy, as well as members of the Inter-American Sanitary Institute and Pan American Sanitary Union, were furnished information relative to the distribution and identification of mammals involved in the transmission of diseases and, aided by our facilities and study collections, were given instruc- tions regarding the identification of such mammals.

In the division of birds, Herbert G. Deignan, associate curator, assisted in work concerning maps and geographic names of the Far East and in a compilation of literature dealing with parts of that area.

In the division of reptiles and amphibians, Dr. Doris M. Cochran assisted the Surgeon General’s Office in the preparation of lists of Asiatic reptiles. In the division of fishes, aid was furnished various agencies concerning dangerous, poisonous, and useful fishes, methods of fishing, sound-making fishes, and emergency fishing equipment.

In the division of insects, many identifications, particularly of mosquitoes, mites, and ectoparasites, were made for the Army and Navy, and the units submitting such material were also supplied with much information on the habits of the forms represented in the identified material. Assistance was given the Army Medical School and the National Naval Medical Center, as well as various Army and Navy training centers throughout the country, by supplying well- preserved material of insects and Acarina that are involved in human health problems. About 1,200 specimens were specially mounted on pins, and approximately 450 slide mounts were made for such train- ing centers. During the year nearly 200 Army and Navy officers, who were being assigned to malaria survey or control units, or to other activities concerned with human-health problems, have re- ceived some instruction or other help from personnel of this division. The Division of Medical Intelligence of the Surgeon General’s Office has been provided with detailed information on the medical insects

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR v4

occurring in specific foreign areas. This information was placed on cards and the files were so organized as to permit their effective use.

At the request of the National Research Council, Dr. Paul Bartsch, curator of mollusks, served as a member of a committee charged with the preparation of a list of helminth parasites and their intermediate hosts of the Southwest Pacific. The list of known or suspected mol- luscan intermediate hosts was prepared in the division. Information regarding corals and coral reefs in the Bahaman-Caribbean region, as well as in the western Pacific, was furnished the Navy Department on several occasions.

In the division of plants, in addition to many minor inquiries from various war organizations, Dr. EK. H. Walker, assistant curator, pre- pared an account of the emergency food plants of the Tropics. In the section of diatoms, in addition to supplying information regarding marine and fresh-water algae and examining samples of material in- volved in the fouling of ships, mines, and other marine structures, the associate curator, Paul S. Conger, prepared a bibliography covering the value of plankton as food.

Service in the department of anthropology inciuded a wide variety of matters—identification of hallmarks on purportedly stolen foreign silver; suggestions for tropical and Arctic clothing; water supply and population statistics on Caribbean Islands; primitive weapons of Pacific and Indonesian peoples; Oceanian boats; Oceanian foods; fish pemmican in Micronesia; house types in Burma; degree of western influence in certain islands of the Pacific and in the Philippines; average stature of men and women of peoples of Europe, Africa, and Asia; photographs of Oceanian, Japanese, Chinese, and other Asiatic peoples; Hindu caste marks; Central American Spanish art; food supplies, containers, footgear, and leather products of North African peoples; footgear for aviators; primitive and HKuropean armor; musical instruments for rehabilitation of wounded soldiers; also a number of detailed projects dealing with the Philippine Islands and the islands of the Japanese mandate. Information based upon the department’s collections was given also on the resources of certain strategic areas, and of the peoples or tribes inhabiting those areas, with a view to conserving space on ships bound for those regions. Of scarcely less importance was assistance given in the identification of tribal cul- ture patterns, chiefly of the island peoples of the west Pacific area and of continental southeastern Asia.

The division of physical anthropology supplied the Office of Stra- tegic Services with photographs of various eastern physical types. It also supplied detailed data on average body weight for Europeans and various peoples of the Far East to the Office of the Quartermaster General. The curator of physical anthropology, Dr. T. Dale Stew- art, was released for a 6-months’ furlough to the Washington Uni- versity School of Medicine in St. Louis, Mo., to teach anatomy to Army and Navy medical students. The associate curator of arche- ology, Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, was detailed for special service to the Military Planning Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, War Department, from September 1, 1943, to March 1944.

In the department of geology, two members of the staff, in cooper- ation with the Geological Institute of Mexico, continued field studies in the economic geology of that country as a part of the war effort. Curator W. F. Foshag spent the year on detail from the Museum in a

8 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

continuation of the supervision of surveys for strategic minerals in Mexico. Dr. G. A. Cooper, similarly, spent three months in the field in Sonora concluding studies begun last year on the stratified rocks. The results, soon to be published, will be useful in the loca- tion of new mineral areas. Dr. Cooper also concluded field work on the project dealing with the subsurface geology of the Devonian rocks of Illinois, obtaining information for use in the oil development of that and neighboring States.

Members of the geological staff in the home office have been more occupied than ever before in furnishing information to the various war agencies. These services have included such diverse items as the preparation of analyses, assisting in selecting and grading calcite for the War Production and other Boards, editing a scientific volume for an allied country, and furnishing information of all kinds to an ever-increasing number of service men and women visiting the Museum.

Other services, especially from the department of engineering and industries, have included the following: Construction of two demon- stration models of new ordnance devices for the National Inventors Council; transfer of a series of model buildings to the War Depart- ment, Corps of Engineers, Camouflage Section ; information on revolv- ing airfoils to the Technical Data Laboratory, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio; furnishing photographs for Navy training films; identification of woods; information on properties and uses of woods for the Navy Department, War Production Board, Foreign Economic Administra- tion, and Inter-American Development Commission; methods of preserving specimens of dehydrated foods for the War Food Admin- istration; advice on disposition of hemp produced in Kentucky to the Commodity Credit Corporation; assistance in drawing up contract specifications involving a true lockstitch in sewing safety seams, to the U. S. Maritime Commission; suitability of palmyra fiber as a substitute for rattan for stiff brushes to the Navy Department; and aid in the training of document inspectors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in identification of various printing processes.

VISITORS

The number of visitors to the Museum buildings during the year showed an increase of 177,496 over the previous year. The total number, 1,532,765, is, of course, far below the peacetime record of 2,408,170 in 1937-38, but the increase does indicate a salutary up- trend in the degree to which the National Museum exhibits and col- lections are being viewed and studied by the people even in wartime. August 1943 and April 1944 saw the largest number of visitors, 162,016 and 164,221, respectively, being recorded for these months. Table 1 shows the number of visitors to the various Museum build- ings during each month of the year.

Since a considerable proportion of the visitors consisted of men and women in the armed forces, special services were proffered this group and every effort was made to enhance their visits. In the Natural History Building a program of Sunday docent service, for guiding parties through the Museum, was inaugurated. A number of women U.S. O. volunteers were especially trained to act as guides, and the “tours” conducted by them proved very popular. During the period

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 9

covering the last 35 Sundays of the fiscal year, over 5,000 members of the military personnel took advantage of this guide service. A fuller account of this program is contained elsewhere in this report. In the Smithsonian Building, information service for visitors was main- tained. The information clerk handled 11,082 separate inquiries for information, distributed 2,427 soldier greeting folders, gave out 602 of the Smithsonian Institution historical brochures, and super- vised a free-magazine table for service men and women. In the Arts and Industries Building, picture postcards of Smithsonian scenes were distributed free to men and women in uniform. Up to January 1944, when the special edition of these cards was exhausted, 50,000 sets (800,000 cards) had been so distributed by the Institution.

TABLE 1.—Visitors to the Museum buildings during the year ended June 80, 1944 See REgII91 Gis isaiporod to dau ant aes org Dn

Museum buildings

Smithsonian

hso Total Building dustries Buila- Natural His- Aircraft

ing tory Building Building

Year and month

a | et | ee | ee eS

1943 | RULE 26, 445 46, 576 43, 973 16, 100 133, 094 AUIStISGs eo ho 33, 389 59, 715 49, 449 19,463 |. 162, 016 September_._______- 23, 664 45, 083 38, 186 13, 487 120, 370 Octoberss_ 625. 22. uz 26, 782 49, 434 43, 552 14, 397 134, 165 November. = 222. 22, 460 41, 301 43, 103 12,666 | 119, 530 December__._______ 15, 348 26, 907 27, 098 9, 026 78, 379 1944 ; Jammanye te. ae F. o 21, 478 39, 519 35, 385 12, 712 109, 094 Hebruaryee 6 ooo. 2 21, 670 38, 374 36, 360 12, 269 108, 673 Wiameleis iss i) 22, 549 45, 907 36, 692 12, 926 118, 074 ANG 0 PU as is i 31, 466 67, 254 46, 822 18, 675 164, 221 Milanese) ss G Si) 0 26, 625 51, 385 45, 598 15, 318 138, 926 TJC S es con ee 29, 336 55, 091 47, 021 14, 775 146, 223 PoOtalsstr 2 301, 212 566, 496 | 1 493, 239 171, 818 | 1, 532, 765

1 Not including 3,684 persons attending meetings after 4:30 p. m. LIBRARY

The experience gained in the first year and a half of the war enabled the staff of the Museum library to begin the past fiscal year better prepared to meet and to adapt its services and facilities to changed conditions. Unpredictable earlier, it was now possible to know not only the kind and character of many of the difficulties arising and of the changes of emphasis certain to continue for the duration but even to foresee others that must be met, and consequently to settle into a better stabilized wartime routine. From the point of view of work done for the war effort, under wartime conditions, the records show that the year was a good one.

The degree to which the library was used directly by various war agencies and by individuals in the armed forces was almost double that of the preceding year, and 520 requests for information came from these sources alone. Some of them were simple questions that could be easily answered, but many of them required considerable research. As was noted in last year’s report, an interesting postwar story could be written about the variety of subjects covered by these

10 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

questions, and the surprising conversion to wartime uses of literature resulting from the most unwarlike pursuit of scientific investigations, especially in the field of the natural sciences.

No statistical record was attempted of the extensive use of the library made indirectly by the war agencies through the liaison of the Ethnogeographic Board.

In the library services to the curatorial staff of the Museum it was no longer possible to distinguish definitely between war work and nonwar work. Routine requests for books and bibliographical assist- ance were much the same in kind and number as in normal years. The difference lay in their purpose, since so many of the Museum staff not actually on war duty elsewhere were almost wholly occupied with war assignments needing their highly specialized knowledge.

There was little difference from last year in the accessions of books and periodicals. The number of periodical parts received both by purchase and by exchange fell off somewhat, but most of the still- continuing scientific serials from allied and neutral countries reached the library with gratifying regularity and with a minimum of loss of individual numbers.

Among the noteworthy acquisitions of the year were 120 volumes and 1,850 pamphlets on Cambrian stratigraphy from the library of the late Dr. Charles E. Resser, and 8 volumes and 750 pamphlets on beetles from the library of the late Dr. M. W. Blackman. As they have long been accustomed to do, many members of the scientific staff and other friends of the Museum generously gave copies of their own publications and other useful and important books and pamphlets.

The cataloging of currently received material was practically up to date at the end of the year, in spite of illness among the staff and a still-vacant cataloging position. The temporary services of a sub- professional cataloger helped considerably to prevent a mounting arrearage of current work that might otherwise have become difficult to reduce.

Again a generous allotment of funds for binding made it possible not only to send off newly completed volumes of periodicals to be bound but also to make some further inroads in the binding ‘‘backlog.”’ Of the 1,951 volumes returned from the bindery, 900 were part of the 1,550 prepared and sent this year, while the rest had been sent toward the close of last year.

The physical condition and the appearance of the library were greatly improved by the completion of the extensive rearrangements undertaken to relieve the overcrowding of the shelves in the Natural History Building. So serious was the overcrowding that even after the transfer of about 2,000 volumes to the Arts and Industries Build- ing there was little room for actual expansion, and almost every book in the stacks had to be shifted to make space in the right places for hitherto unshelved or improperly shelved books and periodicals. In the process, however, the shelves were read and put in order, and not a few “lost”? books came to light. The provision of adequate room for future growth is still an unsolved problem.

Changes on the staff included the resignation of Mrs. Daisy F. Bishop, library assistant, on January 25, 1944, and the appointment of Mrs. Marie Boborykine to succeed her, on March 14. Mrs. Carmen G. Randall was given a temporary appointment as library assistant on September 30, 1943, succeeding Miss Ruth Newcomb, who served

| |

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 11

from August 24 to September 6. Miss Marie R. Wenger was pro- moted to the position of librarian in charge of cataloging, and Mrs. Mary A. Baer was promoted to the position of librarian, continuing in charge of the Arts and Industries branch library. Samuel A. Jones was promoted from assistant messenger to messenger.

Statistics

Accessions of cataloged publications and bound periodicals. 3,726 Volumes, pamphlets, and maps cataloged___------------- 4,794 Rernlogical parts entered 2618s og ar Br fea isc eo 5,607 Cards added to catalogs and shelf lists. _..2...-+-4---1-- 20,619 Volumes bound.or rebounds « oy: sec oe ek 1,951 iNewsexchances arranged o2 3. 2 tt ee 134 Circulation of books and periodicals (exclusive of intra-

divisional circulation from sectional libraries)__.__.__--- 10,310

The estimated number of volumes and pamphlets now in the Museum library is 230,693. Not included in this figure are incom- plete volumes of periodicals and the large collections of pamphlets on special subjects in the sectional libraries.

PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING

The sum allotted for National Museum publication requirements for the fiscal year 1943-44 was $43,000, the same amount as for the preceding year. This allotment was apportioned as follows: $30,000 for the printing of Museum Bulletins, Proceedings, and the Annual Report; $9,000 for binding; $4,000 for the salary of the Museum printer. Twenty publications were issued—the Annual Report, 4 Bulletins, 1 Contribution from the National Herbarium, and 14 Proceedings papers. The publications are listed on page 99. Vol- umes bound totaled 1,550.

The distribution of volumes and separates to libraries and individ- uals on the regular mailing lists aggregated 33,847 copies, while in addition 6,970 copies of publications issued during this and previous years were supplied in response to special requests. The mailing lists have been carefully revised to avoid loss in distribution.

Early in the fiscal year, the Museum editor, Paul H. Oehser, brought to a close his work as editor of the Proceedings of the Eighth American Scientific Congress when volumes 10-12 of that series were published and distributed. This work had been in progress since 1941 in collaboration with the Division of International Conferences, Department of State. The editor continued also as chairman of the Efficiency Rating Committee of the Smithsonian Institution.

Indexing.—Notable advancement was made during the year on the comprehensive index to Museum publications, which has been in progress since 1933. With the exception of seven or eight annual reports, all volumes have now been indexed down to the year 1900. The index at present comprises approximately 235,000 cards.

The indexing of current volumes of Proceedings was kept up to date, indexes and tables of contents for three volumes (91-93) being published during the year. In addition to what time the editor and his assistant, Gladys O. Visel, were able to devote to the indexing work, considerable help was rendered during the year by Mrs. Mar- guerite W. Poole, information clerk.

12 REPORT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1944

Museum print shop.—F¥. W. Bright was detailed by the United States Government Printing Office, as in former years, to print labels and special forms at the Museum print shop, a branch of the Govern- ment Printing Office. Requisitions submitted for printing numbered 146, and Mr. Bright completed 131; in addition 7 that were submitted during the previous fiscal year were finished, a total for the year of 138. Seven of the 15 unfinished requisitions represent specimen labels involving long press runs and 8 cover large exhibition labels requiring much hand setting of type. With the exception of these, the work of the print shop is up to date.

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABORATORY

The Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Collection of Fine Arts, and the National Museum have continued their cooperative arrangement with the photographic laboratory. Under this the laboratory has made 3,205 negatives (including 120 microphotographs) 13,533 prints, 314 lantern slides, 2,060 enlargements, and 35 trans- parencies (including 13 in kodachrome). It has also developed 27 rolis of film, 5 film packs, 73 paper negatives, and 135 cut films. In addition it copied 1,049 pages in microfilm, mounted 624 prints, retouched 286 negatives, and cut 8 mats. Much of this work has been in connection with the preparation of illustrations for the Smithsonian War Background Series of publications, with the work of the Ethnogeographic Board, and other matters related to Smith- sonian activities in the war effort.

Under a reorganization effected during the year the curatorial work on the photographic collections in the Museum, which pertains properly to the division of graphic arts, was separated on November 9, 1943, from the activities of the head photographic laboratory.

BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT

Repaars and alterations —Repairs to the service roadway around the Natural History Building, begun last year, were completed in October. Although these were only of an emergency nature, it is felt that they have put the roadway in very good condition and will furnish a perfect foundation when funds become available for complete resurfacing.

Most of the other building repairs were of a routine, maintenance nature and need no special mention. Painting, as usual, was the biggest item. The largest paint job completed was the repainting of the walls and ceiling of the “chapel” and ceiling of the west range in the Smithsonian Building. In progress at the close of the year was the painting of the exterior of the window frames and sashes in the west end of the Smithsonian Building, a rather difficult and lengthy procedure because of the complexity of some of these old windows.

Scrap-metal and paper salvage.—As a contribution to the war effort, the collection of scrap metal in Museum buildings was continued. During the year 2,350 pounds of junk metal and 1,250 pounds of salvaged tin cans were collected and delivered, respectively, to the Procurement Division and the District of Columbia Salvage Commit- tee. More than 6 tons of waste paper were collected.

OPERATIONS FOR THE YEAR 13

Heat, light, and power.—The steam used during the year for heating the various Museum buildings amounted to 63,445,800 pounds— about 8,500,000 more than for the previous year. All steam is fur- nished by the Government’s Central Heating Plant. Electric current used amounted to 1,510,510 kilowatt-hours.

An important maintenance job completed in June was the rewiring of the tunnel from the Natural History Building to the Smithsonian Building, where through corroding the old conduit line had become hazardous.

Ice production.—Ice for the Museum’s use manufactured by the refrigerating plant amount to 197.9 tons, at a cost of $1.15 a ton.

Air-raid and fire protection.—The usual weekly air-raid alarm tests, and periodic inspections and maintenance of water barrels, fire pumps, fire extinguishers, and other equipment, were made. ‘The fire and burglar alarm systems functioned efficiently.

Furniture and fixtures —Furniture added during the year consisted of 5 exhibition cases and bases, 287 pieces of storage, laboratory, and other furniture, and 2,426 drawers, boxes, and wing frames. Con- demned and disposed of were 28 exhibition cases and bases, 120 items of storage, laboratory, office, and other furniture, and 166 drawers and boxes of various kinds. An inventory as of June 30, 1944, showed on hand: 3,522 exhibition cases, 20,368 pieces of storage, office, and laboratory furniture, and 116,466 drawers, boxes, and wing

frames. MEETINGS AND SPECIAL EXHIBITS

The Museum has continued its practice of making its auditortum and lecture-room facilities available for the use of scientific, educational, welfare, and governmental organizations and groups. Especially in wartime do such groups, particularly local ones, find it convenient to use these facilities for their meetings, and as far as possible the Museum is glad to assist in carrying out their programs. In all, 139 such meetings were held during the year in the auditorium and room 43, Natural History Building.

A series of 17 special exhibits were held during the year in the foyer and adjacent space of the Natural History Building. These, listed chronologically, were as follows:

July 1 to August 31, 1943: Exhibit of anthropological specimens from the Pacific area, from the Aleutian Islands through Micronesia and the Melanesian Islands, prepared by the department of anthropology.

September 1 to 30, 1943: Exhibit of photographs conducted by the National Photographic Society.

October 6 to 31, 1943: Exhibition of paintings by Zeferino Palencia, of Mexico, sponsored by Sefior Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Najera, Ambassador Extra- ordinary and Plenipotentiary of Mexico, and by the Pan American Union.

October 13 to November 1, 1943: Exhibit illustrating the theme ‘‘Bali—Back- ground to War,’’ prepared by the Museum of Modern Art, of New York.

November 1 to 30, 19438: Exhibit of wild-flower paintings, by Mrs. D. Werden Scott, of San Saba, Tex.

December 3, 1943, to January 3, 1944: Exhibit of water colors of Mexico by Walter B. Swann, of Omaha, Nebr., sponsored by Sefior Dr. Don Francisco Castillo Najera, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Mexico, and by the Pan American Union.

January 1 to 31, 1948: Exhibit of arts and crafts made by Service people in various U. 8. O. centers throughout the country, sponsored by the United Service Organization.

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